11 MMJ Terpenes You Should Know About

Terpenes are classified as organic compounds. Different strains of cannabis have a wide variety of smells and tastes. Many terpenes affect the aroma and flavor profile of your bud. By mapping out the terpene profiles, we can predict and manipulate them. Changing the smell and flavor is pretty cool, but it’s not even the most exciting part about terpene research.

Some terpenes have been found to have medicinal benefits. That means, there are non-psychoactive compounds that can be used to safely treat an array of medical conditions. There are a ton of different terpenes in cannabis, but here are 11 profiles you should know about.

1. Limonene
Flavor / Aroma – Citrus.
Medicinal Uses – Limonene can be used to help promote weight loss, prevent and treat cancer, and treat bronchitis. It can also be used to make ointments and medicinal creams that penetrate the skin better.
Strain – Super Lemon Haze gets its name partially from the aroma, but did you know the smell is present because it contain’s Limonene?

2. Myrcene
Flavor / Aroma – Earthy and musky with a hint of fruity flavors.
Medicinal Uses –  Myrcene has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory. It also works as a sedative and muscle relaxer. This could possibly contribute to the tired/stoney feeling often attributed to indicas.
Strain – A study found that most of the strains they tested contain high levels of Myrcene. One strain they tested, Lovrin 110, contained over 65% Myrcene.

3. Linalool
Flavor / Aroma  Floral with a hint of spice. In addition to cannabis, linalool can be found in an array of flowers, mint, cinnamon, and even some fungi.
Medicinal Uses – Can be used as an anti-inflammatory. It also helps to modulate motor movements. Another study found that Linalool could be used to help treat liver cancer.
Strain – A lab tested sample of Amnesia Haze showed slightly over 1% linalool.

4. Alpha Bisabolol
Flavor / Aroma – Floral. Alpha Bisabolol is also found in chamomile.
Medicinal Uses – Can be used to heal wounds, fights bacteria, and can be used a deodorizer. Research suggests Alpha Bisabolol has been effective in treating a variety of inflammation.
Strain – A strain called ‘Oracle’ was found to have high levels of Alpha Bisabolol.

5. Delta 3 Carene
Flavor / Aroma – Piney / earthy.
Medicinal Uses – Studies have found Delta 3 Carene to be an effective anti-inflammatory. It is also known to dry fluids like tears, running noses, and menstrual flows.
Strain – A research study examined 162 marijuana plants, which represented over 80 strains. They detected Carene in many of the samples.

6. Borneol
Flavor / Aroma – Earthy and camphor.
Medicinal Uses – Borneol can be used as an analgesic, anti-insomnia, anti-septic, and bronchodilator.
Strain – Haze strains such as K13 contain high amounts of Borneol.

7. Alpha-Pinene / Beta-Pinene
Flavor / Aroma – Pine. This is, of course, partially where pine trees get their scent from.
Medicinal Uses – Pinene has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.
Strain – One study examined 16 marijuana plants and found all the strains contained notable amounts of Alpha-Pinene and Beta-Pinene.

8. Eucalyptol
Flavor / Aroma – Spicy. Eucalyptol is used as a cooking spice and fragrance.
Medicinal Uses – Eucalyptol is used in a variety of products including cough suppressants, mouthwash, and body powder.
Strain – Some cannabis strains contain Eucalyptol, however, it is typically in very small amounts. An analysis of Super Silver Haze showed .06% Eucalyptol.

9. Terpineol
Flavor / Aroma – Pine, clove.
Medicinal Uses – Studies suggest cannabis-extracted terpineol contains antioxidant properties.
Strain – A marijuana testing lab claims Terpineol is a unique terpene found in Jack Herer and Jack crossbreeds.

10. Caryophyllene
Flavor / Aroma – Hoppy. Cannabis and hops are basically cousins.
Medicinal Uses – Studies suggest that Caryophyllene may help treat anxiety and depression.
Strain – Green House Seeds tested a hydroponic and a soil-grown specimen of Train Wreck. They found the soil grown cannabis contained .33% Caryophyllene. The hydronic only contained .07% Caryophyllene.

11. Camphene
Flavor / Aroma – Herbal.
Medicinal Uses – Camphene has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antibiotic characteristics. 
Strain – One study suggests Camphene is significantly higher in concentration among ‘mostly indica’ strains. 

MMJ and Pain Treatment

The way that our bodies receive the chemical compounds that come from medical marijuana contributes to how pain is treated with the drug. Our bodies possess cannabinoid receptors and producers throughout our systems. The endocannabinoids, cannabinoids produced by our bodies and their receptors known as CB1 and CB2 can be stimulated and controlled in different ways by consuming cannabis.

The endocannabinoid system, to put it simply, has receptors practically everywhere in our bodies. From our nervous system to our organs to bones and even in our blood. Therefore, when you take a medical dosage of marijuana, which has a very similar set of botanical cannabinoids (a.k.a. phytocannabinoids) you can affect the way different parts of your body react and deal with discomfort.

One of the little-known facts about medical marijuana is that it contains well over 400 chemicals. This fact is why it’s very important to have a discussion with a doctor before dosing with a specific strain of marijuana. When you buy medical cannabis products from any random dispensary it’s difficult to determine what the chemical makeup of the strain you’re buying.

The chemical compounds found in marijuana, as previously mentioned, are phytocannabinoids which can affect your body’s pain-response mechanisms. The most effective phytocannabinoids for relief are cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and both privilege specific endocannabinoid receptors.

CBD is great for treating inflammation, spasticity, and seizures to name a few and since it binds to CB2 receptors there’s little to no psychoactive side-effects. CBD is also effective at reducing anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, making it a good choice for treating neuropathic conditions and chemotherapy-related symptoms. THC is also proficient at treating seizures and neuropathic conditions as it binds to CB1 receptors in the brain that regulate excitability and relaxation but does cause a psychoactive high as a side-effect.

Besides the chemical compounds found in the plant, marijuana treats ailments to varying degrees according to how it’s consumed. When you inhale marijuana, whether as a smoke or a vapor, the THC or CBD goes straight to the brain and affects your system faster. You won’t experience the effects of marijuana for a long duration of time, however, so it’s important to take note of what condition you are treating for beforehand.

When you ingest marijuana as a pill or an edible product, the chemicals are metabolized in your liver and stay within your system for longer. This type of dosing is particularly effective for chronic pain issues that last for long periods of time. But if you dose this way, be aware that it can be trickier to gauge the concentration of cannabinoids.

MMJ vs Fatigue

Fatigue is a fact of life for many in our modern society. Whether patients experience tiredness from overwork, disorders like anxiety or insomnia causing lack of sleep, or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), it’s a very common condition.

There’s no specific treatment for this condition since there are not many positive medical findings to help point patients towards an optimal treatment plan. Every individual experiences fatigue differently, which is why doctors often prescribe things like antidepressants and sleeping pills to patients. But with drug overdose issues affecting Canadians across the country, it can be dangerous to rely on pills alone to fight symptoms.

Cannabinoids, the compounds found in the cannabis plant that includes medicinal ones like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), can regulate and modulate your body’s mental and physiological reactions. Cannabinoids can initiate this regulation and modulation process because our bodies have an inherent endogenous cannabinoid system.

When we consume medical marijuana, whether in the form of smoke, vapor, or edibles, cannabinoids attach themselves to special receptors in our brain and throughout our nervous system. If you are taking specific strains of marijuana to fight CFS, the cannabinoids within these strains will most likely have a higher concentration of CBD which is known to keep energy high.

When you’re using marijuana to treat CFS or overtiredness from crazy work schedule versus using prescription pills, you can experience a more immediate boost, naturally. When you inhale marijuana, cannabinoids reach the brain faster, although ingesting the plant can give you effects that last for a longer period as cannabinoids are metabolized in the liver.

There are different strains, or types, of marijuana plants that can be used to treat an assortment of ailments. Marijuana can treat anxiety, muscle spasms and neurological pain, as well as reduce nausea and vomiting as side effects of chemotherapy, but only when you’re using the right strain for the ailment or condition in question. When you plan to use marijuana to treat your tiredness, you should be clear on what the best strains are for that condition.

As mentioned above, high-CBD strains of marijuana are good for regulating energy levels. As well patients should keep in mind that sativa plants are better for energy than indica plants are. There are few differences between sativas and indicas, but the main one relates to their cannabinoid ratios. Sativas have a high CBD-to-THC ratio, while indicas have a high THC-to-CBD ratio.

More on MMJ and Fatigue at The Medical Marijuana Association

Stoner Gift Ideas Under $30 The Fisherman's Friend

The Fisherman's Friends
by: Monkey Pipe

The Monkey Pipe Fishermans Friend Original is the first of its kind. Just like its name says, the Monkey Pipe Fisherman's is truly the lightest and most comfortable pipe you could carry - it even offers a stainless swivel lid which opens the storage compartment - just how fishermen prefer their gear, lightweight, compact and useful. The Fishermans Friends also offers a matching stainless steel bottom plate that slides out to make cleaning hassle-free. 

The Monkey Pipe Fisherman's Friend will last for many years to come. It measures 2" inches when closed, and 3.5" inches when open. Simply swivel the mouthpiece to close and extinguish lit herbs. Fishermans Friend uses 0.625" filtration screens.

Available at: WickiePipes
10% OFF Everything at WickiePipes with Code

REVIEW The Dipper a truly unique concentrate vaporizer

The Dipper by Dipstick Vapes takes all of the hassles and mess out of enjoying a dab. Along with that, the Dipper is compact, portable and makes for very efficient use of your stash, making it a must-have.

Because of the vertical design, the user is able to position the hot tip above or adjacent to the concentrate, allowing for a precise dose. The concentrate never has to leave it’s heat resistant container and is never wasted on tools or fingers.

With the Dipper, there is no need for a delicate expensive rig that requires extensive cleaning on a regular basis. There is no longer a need for a butane guzzling torch or burn cream for those little mishaps. Simply stated, the Dipper is the most convenient and easy way to enjoy a dab.

I can only speak for myself and that said, I have never loaded a dab pen or taken a dab off a rig without sticky fingers being the least of the mess.

The Dipper looks sharp and is available in three metallic colors. There are a couple of accessories available and even an adapter so you can use your Dipper as a traditional style concentrate vape pen but I didn’t even try the adapter once I took a dip.

The Dipper by Dipstick Vapes would certainly make a great gift for your favorite dabber but once you check it out for yourself, you are going to want one of your own.

Check out the Dipper at dipstickvapes.com 
and get 10% OFF with Code: CJ10.

CBG the Lesser Known Cannabinoid

The mainstreaming of medical marijuana and the accompanying green rush have prompted an industry-wide interest in extracting and isolating cannabinoids believed to have therapeutic potential.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is often erroneously considered the “medical” counterpart to buzz-inducing tetrahydro cannabidiol (THC), and the economic buzz around the newly publicized cannabinoid has the industry scrambling to identify other cannabinoids responsible for the medical benefits of the cannabis plant.

The search is on for “the next CBD,” and industry pioneers like GW Pharmaceuticals appear to have set their sights on cannabigerol (CBG), a much lesser-known cannabinoid, but one necessary for the production of the plant’s more famous ingredients: as the “stem cell” of cannabis, CBG is the first cannabinoid present in the plant and converted into THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids by the time of harvest.

Most of the research into CBG has focused on its transitional properties as key to understanding the development of the cannabis plant, but its importance to the plant’s development has attracted a swell of interest in its own potential medical properties.

CBG has been linked to treatment of a long host of ailments — including glaucoma, cancer, Huntington’s Disease, pain and nausea — and the industry is talking about the compound’s potential. CBG has similar benefits to CBD, but acts on other neurotransmitters.

Research into CBG is still in its infancy, limited to pre-clinical trials and animal studies that offer more suggestions than conclusions.

Paul Armentano, deputy director of NORML, said clinical research in CBG is growing.

“Despite CBG being isolated in 1964, there are relatively few peer-reviewed assessments of its potential therapeutic properties,” he said. “That said, there appears to be a renewed interest among scientists regarding non-THC cannabinoids and their potential medical application, so my supposition is that we will begin to see a greater emphasis on CBG and other non-euphoric inducing phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids which originate from plants).”

Researching the cannabis plant is a complicated undertaking due to prohibition’s chilling effect on funding, as well as the tendency for research to focus on extracted cannabinoids rather than their collective effect.

Just as nutritionists have touted the importance of whole-plant foods, cannabis researchers are pointing to an “entourage effect” that employs not just one or two, but a combination of several cannabinoids acting together on different receptors in the brain.

More at: Cannabis Now

Cannabis is Key to Health for Retired NFL All-Pro Lineman

Photo Credit: Former Saints lineman Kyle Turley continues to speak out about painkiller use in the NFL
Kyle Turley used to get through the day by taking painkillers, muscle relaxers, sleep aids and anti-inflammatory medications.

The outcome for a former All-Pro lineman who said he suffered from more than 100 concussions in football looked grim. Turley has early onset Alzheimer’s disease and symptoms of the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that can only be diagnosed in the deceased.

Turley, now 41, also suffered from vertigo, depression, rage, migraine headaches and light sensitivity after an eight-year career with New Orleans, St. Louis and Kansas City.

He considered suicide numerous times, including in 2009 when his wife stopped him from jumping out of a third-story window at their home. Turley blamed suicidal and homicidal feelings on psychiatric medications he took. Opioid pain medicine also contributed to his declining health, he said.

Two years ago, the 6-foot-5, 300-pound bear of a man turned away from the medicine cabinet and began using marijuana. Since then he has become one of the biggest advocates of cannabis for treatment of football injuries and personifies a growing feeling among players that this is the path to better health.

“When you find you’re contemplating suicide you have to make a decision, one way or another,” said Turley, who lives in Riverside. “Otherwise I would have put a bullet in my head a long time ago.”

To this day, Turley needs artificial knee replacements, a hip replacement and back fusion surgery. “I’ve got bone on bone in every joint,” he said. “It’s as bad as it gets.”

Turley, who started the cannabis company Neuro Armour, takes cannabidiol (CBD) oils for some of his body problems. He also uses THC, marijuana’s psychoactive ingredient that gives people a buzz, to deal with psychological scars.

The sativa-dominant strain of cannabis he uses “is better than any psych medication that I’ve ever been given, period,” Turley said. “It deals with my pain, it deals with my stress, and it deals with my CTE.”

Can Cannabis Keep our Brain Young?

The more research that’s done on medicinal marijuana, the more benefits we’re seeing sprout like an uncontrollable, well, weed. From relieving pain during menstruation or for reproductive disorders like endometriosis, to treating depression to improving sex, the possibilities seem endless. Seriously, is there anything cannabis can't-do?

According to new research, cannabis may also reverse some of the effects of aging on our thinker. With age comes wisdom, sure, but as we grow older our mental and physical faculties start to decline. It’s the part of celebrating another year around the sun that no one looks forward to. So, while your skin isn’t going to suddenly stop sagging from marijuana use, your body’s mainframe might actually benefit.

The srudy, published in the May 2017 issue of Nature Medicine, was conducted by a team of scientists at the University of Bonn in Germany and The Hebrew University in Israel. They tested their hypothesis that the brain’s natural aging process could be reversed by administering a small, daily dose of cannabis to a group of mice that were either two-, 12- or 18-months old (keep in mind that mice typically live to about two years old) over the course of a month. What researchers noticed was that the older mice were able to regress back to the state of the two-month-old mice when given a daily, low dose of cannabis for a prolonged period of time. 

“It looked as though the THC treatment turned back the molecular clock,” doctor Andreas Zimmer wrote in the paper.

The study also considered the cognitive performance of the mice in terms of their spatial learning, memory, recognition of other mice, and the speed at which they learned new tasks. They found that cannabis did indeed aid the cognitive abilities of the older mice who were given the daily dose. Meanwhile, another group of mice administered a placebo displayed normal cognitive deterioration as they age. According to these findings, this “could be a potential strategy to slow down or even to reverse cognitive decline in the elderly.” 

But don’t get too excited just yet. While the study does sound promising, it’s important to remember that testing is still in the early stages. Not to mention, currently the research is only being completed on rodents, not humans. The next step will be for similar research to be done using actual human beings as participants, at which point we could be more sure whether a small dose of medicinal marijuana a day can help fend off the brain’s natural decay.  

Cannabis might not be the fountain of eternal youth that we have all been waiting for, but these new findings have certainly got our attention.

via: Lift News

Stoner Gift Ideas Under $100 The Zipp Dry Herb Vaporizer from Randy's Wired Papers

The Zipp • Dry Herb Vaporizer
from Randy's Wired Papers

Randy’s Zipp is a high-tech Digital Dry Herb Vaporizer, with a customizable temperature control display. 

The slim and sleek design of the Zipp makes it a very discrete vape pen. The sleek design paired with the size of the ceramic baking chamber makes the Zipp an excellent vaporizer to load up and take on-the-go. The digital display of the Zipp allows you to select the exact temperature in which you prefer to vape your dry herb. 

Available at Randy's Wired Papers
10% OFF Everything at Randys

The Health Benefits of Raw Cannabis

Loaded with proteins, minerals, vitamins, fibers and antioxidants,  raw cannabis is rich in digestible globular proteins, and the balanced proportions of essential amino acids (the amino acids that cannot be synthesized in our body).  Raw marijuana has an ideal ratio of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids, with antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are very much important for the overall well-being, as these preserve health, boost the immune system, reduce the risk of heart diseases, address diabetes complications, and most importantly, lower the risk of cancer development.

During the normal drying and curing process of Marijuana, the chlorophyll pigment from the herb is lost; however, it is this component that has loads of dietary benefits. Chlorophyll has the ability to rejuvenate the body, at the cellular level. With its structure similar to that of hemoglobin, chlorophyll has plenty of benefits such as it prevents DNA damage, promotes overall cleansing or detoxification within the body, encourages healing, treats inflammation, improves the iron content absorption, etc.

And, when you consume raw Marijuana, you will not be consuming THC or CBD; instead, you will be consuming the acid forms of these components- Cannabidolic Acid (CBD-A) and Tetrahydrocannabonolic Acid (THC-A). Just like other components of raw cannabis, CBD-A and THC-A are also very good antioxidants. Recent research experiments show that these components can be powerful healers of serious medical condition, like cancer. In latest study conducted at Hiroshima International University, and published in 2017 January, the researchers discovered a possible way through which, CBD-A inhibits the COX-2 enzyme in aggressive breast cancer tumors. The study further talks about CBD-A’s ability to inhibit a proto-oncogene, c-Fos, which is an element involved in the cancer metastasis.On the other hand, THC-A is known to be neuroprotective, antispasmodic, and an excellent pain-reliever.

Raw Cannabis will also hold most of its terpenes. Terpenes not only decide the aroma and taste of the buds but also have their own medicinal properties, such as antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer properties.

The cleansing properties of raw cannabis, cannot be emphasized enough. Like any other raw herb, cannabis is also rich in fibers and folates. Toxic accumulation in the body may happen for different reasons; it might be either due to your poor diet habits, or your body’s inability to fight against the free-radicals. In either condition, your body will need fiber content, which kicks out the toxic substances, from your body.

To make the best use of all the above-said benefits, you should be using the raw leaves and buds from live cannabis plants.

More about the benefits and methods to consume raw cannabis  at Fresh Toast

Cannabis use May Decrease Risk of Stroke

Cannabis could lower a person's risk of having a stroke, new research claims. 

Medical strains of the drug are prescribed across more than half of the United States to treat chronic pain, anxiety and epilepsy. 

It is controversial; as more states legalize the drug, scores of medical experts warn marijuana carries other dangerous side effects, and we do not have enough research to be sure of its benefits.

However, a study by the University of Texas at Dallas has found the drug can improve oxygen and blood flow to the brain, reducing the risk of clots that cause a brain attack.

In fact, the research team found chronic cannabis users have the most efficient brain blood flow of all, suggesting their stroke risk is lowest. 

The findings build on previous studies about marijuana's impact on memory function.

But while many earlier papers concluded cannabis slows memory function, Dr Francesca Filey's research team found the drug to have a positive effect.

'Past marijuana research has shown changes in cognitive functions such as memory and executive functioning,' said lead author Dr Francesca Filbey. 

'Our study seeks to understand the possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may drive these cognitive changes.'

We already know that THC - the property in weed that makes you 'high' - is known to relax blood vessels and alter blood flow in the brain.

However, this study focused on how prolonged THC use might affect the brain's blood flow.

They did this by analyzing the differences in regional brain blood oxygenation and metabolism in chronic cannabis users.

Dr Filbey, director of Cognitive Neuroscience Research in Addictive Disorders at the Center for Brain Health, led the team in examining 74 users and 101 non-users for 60 days.

All users reported at least 5,000 usages over their lifetime and daily use for 60 days leading up to the study. 

Participants were required to refrain from cannabis for 72 hours before the study to eliminate acute effects of the drug. 

Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and THC metabolite levels were measured using urinalysis.

Filbey and her team found that cannabis users showed higher global oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen compared to nonusers. 

That increased the more of the drug they consumed.  

They also found that blood flow in the putamen - an area of the brain associated with reward, learning and habits - was greater in users than nonusers.

Increased blood flow in the putamen may either reflect the capacity of THC to dilate blood vessels or the development of additional circulatory pathways.

'Currently, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug,' Dr Filbey said.

'As it becomes more widely legalized, understanding neurophysiological alterations and its effects on the brain's health and performance are becoming increasingly relevant.' 

Due to the prospective nature of the study, published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology, researchers cannot say whether cannabis use directly causes the observed changes, or whether other underlying conditions also may be at play.

While the reason for the brain changes related to chronic marijuana use is unclear, Dr Filbey said that these changes may reflect underlying differences in brain tissue metabolic rate.

How to Make Cannabis Tincture

To the surprise of many, tinctures are actually a form of extraction — concentrating herbs into their most potent form with the use of alcohol (similar to how vanilla extract is produced).

A simple dropper full of tincture can do amazing things for anxiety, sleep, focus, pain, immunity boost, allergies (the list goes on). Tinctures are a simple way to replenish and infuse your body with herbal power. 

Tinctures are versatile — they can be taken directly under the tongue or mixed into your favorite drink for a more soothing experience. 

Alcohol-based tinctures are the standard in most herbology practices because of their long shelf-life of several years and the effective way alcohol strips all the beneficial goodness from herbs. However, there are plenty of alternatives to alcohol extraction. I personally love glycerin tinctures because they’re sweet like honey, making them a great addition to tea. Apple cider vinegar can also be used as an alcohol substitute. For a tasty compromise, many herbalists combine alcohol and glycerin to take away some of the alcohol’s bite in their tinctures. If you’re avoiding alcohol but want to make an alcohol-based tincture, you can use the tincture in hot drinks or foods so that the alcohol evaporates off before ingestion. 

What You’ll Need:
A clean glass jar with a lid 
Enough herbs of your choice (see below) to fill half of the jar
Consumable alcohol that’s at least 80-proof (Vodka or Rum work great, as do Apple Cider Vinegar and food-grade Vegetable Glycerine if you’re avoiding alcohol)
Dropper Bottles

Step One:
Fill your jar halfway with herbs, without packing them down. You can mix your herbs in any ratio you please to fit your specific needs. I wanted mine to be cannabis-dominant so I’m going to add 1 cup of CBD cannabis flower (hash works great as well, just add about half). I carry a lot of my anxiety as shoulder and neck tension, so I’m going to add ½ cup of Skull Cap which is great for reducing muscle tension. And to finish off my jar I’m going to add ¼ cup of valerian to calm my racing heart and thoughts. 
Optional step: Add boiling water, just enough to dampen the herbs in order to activate and release more medicinal benefits.

Step Two:
Fill the rest of your jar with alcohol (or a substitute). Remember, you can always do a combination of alcohol and glycerin (or honey if you don’t have glycerin on hand). I’m going to add a couple tablespoons of honey to ensure some extra sweetness in my rum-based tincture. Stir with a clean utensil to mix all that goodness together!

Step Three:
Tightly close the lid, place the jar in a cool and dark location, and patiently wait. Make sure to give it a little shake every couple of days. In 4-6 weeks it will be fully infused and ready for the final step!

Step Four:
Here we are, 4-6 weeks later and your tincture is fully infused and looking beautiful. It’s time to strain out the herbs and collect the tincture. Use a cheesecloth to strain the herbs as you pour out your liquid concentrate. You can either pour your tincture directly into a dropper bottle or into another airtight container to transfer into dropper bottles later. The used herbs make great compost or chicken snacks. 

Now, it’s time to finally enjoy your tincture! For dosing, take 1-2 droppers full at the first sign of anxiety. For me, an alcohol-based tincture is a little too much to put under my tongue so I typically place my tincture into a hot cup of tea which will evaporate the active alcohol.

This and more great stuff at Marijuana.com

Cleaning Up Illegal Marijuana Grow Sites

Viscous, stratified, and hot to the touch, a five-gallon water tank bubbled with unknown chemicals at an illegal marijuana grow site in California’s San Bernadino National Forest. Marijuana growers most likely planned to use this brew as a high-powered pesticide to keep any and all animals away from their marijuana plants.

On U.S. Forest Service land in California alone, more than 400 illegal grow sites have been identified. This is in part because international drug organizations have traditionally set up illegal grow sites on national forests in California.

However, organized sites are now popping up as far east as North Carolina, and smaller, unorganized grow sites occur in most states. These sites pose problems for Forest Service law enforcement, the public, and the environment – with pesticides poisoning wildlife, soil, and water.

“There’s no telling what you’ll run into out there,” said Chris Boehm, Deputy Director of Forest Service Law Enforcement and Investigations. Many sites harbor booby traps, and the growers themselves are often armed. Law enforcement agents are trained to safely navigate most of these hazards, but if members of the recreating public encounter a grow site, the situation can quickly turn unsafe.

The bubbling vat on the San Bernardino National Forest is an example of what even law enforcement agents aren’t prepared to handle during an initial raid due to the potential toxicity to both people and the environment.

“Some of the [pesticide] is so concentrated animals die in a matter of minutes, if not seconds,” said Forest Service researcher Craig Thompson.

Researchers frequently find dead squirrels, bears, and birds, and other animals killed by the pesticides used on these grow sites. Once an animal consumes and dies from pesticides, the chemicals continue powering through the entire food web as scavengers feed upon poisoned carcasses. At one site, researchers found a dead fox, a dead vulture that had been feeding on the fox, and dead insects that had landed on both.

Because growers spray pesticides and add them to irrigation systems, the chemicals also seep into the soil and surrounding waterways, which can kill aquatic species and potentially compromise the safety of people’s drinking water downstream.

To reduce the grow site impacts and discourage illegal growers from returning, Forest Service and partner law enforcement agents, scientists, safety experts, and others plan and carry out clean-up efforts to remove the plants, irrigation infrastructure, waste, and chemicals.  If they leave these resources intact, growers will return and reuse the same site.

Many grow sites are in remote locations and difficult to access, making remediation efforts challenging and costly. Helicopters must be used to airlift tons of garbage and miles of irrigation piping. Partial HAZMAT protocols must be followed, and decontamination kits used to contain and clean up the waste.

Last year Forest Service staff and partners removed more than 11,000 pounds of trash, 1,250 pounds of fertilizer, and numerous toxic chemicals from just one illegal site.

More at USDA.gov

STUDY Pain Sufferers Prefer Cannabis to Opioids

With the growing opioid epidemic, more and more pain sufferers are beginning to realize the detrimental effects opioids can have on a person. When the United States (less than 5% of the world’s populations) consumes 80% of the world’s opioid supply, you begin to see this is a highly-localized problem. The problem becomes dangerous when a person begins to abuse and develop a dependence to the drug. A recent study, however, has shown that pain sufferers are opting for medical cannabis rather than traditional opioids for pain management.

Survey Respondents Say Cannabis Is Better Than Opioids 

In collaboration with HelloMD, a community-based medical cannabis site, the University of Berkeley surveyed 3,000 medical cannabis users on their cannabis and opioid use. The study found that a staggering 97% of respondents felt that cannabis helped them reduce their opioid painkiller usage. Furthermore, 92% of respondents claimed that they preferred to use cannabis over opioids for treating their painful symptoms. 81% of respondents stated that cannabis alone was a far better pain reliever than a cannabis and opioid combination treatment.

Although this was a survey-based study, it shows a strong correlation between cannabis use and pain relief. Additionally, cannabis is not toxic or create a dependence, unlike opioids. Essentially, it is a safer alternative treatment when opioid medications do not help. The ability to take more than a pill and instead have a plethora of cannabis products has made finding an effective pain relief a cinch.

Unlike Opioids, Cannabis Is Not Addictive 

The rate of opioid overdoses and addiction has gotten to a point where sufferers are finding alternative, non-addicting relief. Cannabis, unlike traditional opioid painkillers, are not addictive. That does not mean that cannabis cannot be abused, but side effects are very mild. For instance, the more you use cannabis the more product you need to achieve similar results, which is referred to as “tolerance.” If you’re a chronic user, this may present a problem, one which can be alleviated with a couple weeks of not using to get brain levels to normal and continue to enjoy effective pain relief.

If you’re currently using opioids to manage your pain, consult your physician first before consuming cannabis for its analgesic effects. If you do plan to use cannabis to treat your pain, remember that everyone responds differently to different cannabis doses, strains, products, etc. Patients typically experiment to find the most effective pain relief. Many patients report that indica strains (due to their high THC content) can provide maximum pain relief in low to moderate doses, but not high doses. With this in mind, you can start at an a small 5-10 mg dose and build up from there.

Why CBD is Not Psychoactive

Why is THC psychoactive and CBD is not? How can one cannabinoid alter the mind so profoundly, and the other seemingly not at all?

When we’re talking about cannabis and psychoactivity, we’re dealing exclusively with CB1 receptors, which are concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. The difference between CBD vs. THC comes down to a basic difference in how each one interacts with the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor. THC binds well with CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CBD has low binding affinity for CB1 receptors. That’s where the two diverge.

Think of it like an electrical plug connecting to a wall socket. A THC molecule is perfectly shaped to connect with CB1 receptors. When that connection happens, THC activates or stimulates those CB1 receptors. Researchers call THC a CB1 receptor agonist, which means THC works to activate those CB1 receptors.

THC partially mimics a naturally produced neurotransmitter known as anandamide, aka “the bliss molecule.” Anandamide is an endocannabinoid which activates CB1 receptors. Animal studies have taught us that anandamide can increase appetite and enhance pleasure associated with food consumption, and it’s likely responsible for some of the rewarding effects of exercise (e.g. the “runner’s high”). Anandamide also plays a role in memory, motivation, and pain. THC is a “key” that so closely resembles anandamide that it activates CB1 receptors, allowing it to produce some of those same blissful feelings.

CBD, by contrast, is not a good fit with CB1 receptors. It’s categorized as an antagonist of CB1 agonists. This means that it doesn’t act directly to activate or suppress CB1 receptors—rather, it acts to suppress the CB1-activating qualities of a cannabinoid like THC. In other words, when you ingest THC and CBD, the THC directly stimulates those CB1 receptors, while the CBD acts as a kind of modulating influence on the THC. As Project CBD co-founder Martin Lee once wrote: “CBD opposes the action of THC at the CB1 receptor, thereby muting the psychoactive effects of THC.”

How does that work in real life? Let’s say you vaporize cannabis flower with 24 percent THC. If that flower has 0.2 percent CBD, the THC is going to excite your CB1 receptors with almost no interference from CBD. You may feel extremely high, and you might also experience some of the less desirable effects of THC, such as a heightened feeling of paranoia. If you consume cannabis with 24 percent THC and 6 percent CBD, though, the CBD should have a dampening effect on the THC. You’ll still feel high, but perhaps not stupefyingly so—and the CBD should help keep the paranoia in check.

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