Bacterial infections are often sneakier and harder to notice. They are spread by a number of different possible vehicles, ranging from insects and humans to rain and unclean soil or substrate. Bacteria can sometimes get into a plant and then leave it mostly untouched unless the plant is weakened by external stresses, at which point they can quickly take down the whole plant.
Proper treatment of a fungal or bacterial disease requires a knowledge of the potential symptoms, which we’ll list below. As always, the best defense against disease is prevention. Do your best to create an environment which is healthy for plants and inhospitable for fungus and bacterial growth.
Always Great Tips from: I Love Growing Marijuana
Marijuana seeds have many benefits when compared to growing from clones.
The most helpful benefit is that marijuana plants grown from seed do not introduce pests or problems into a garden like clones can.
Many growers opt for feminized seeds, but I feel that you do best, and can have efficient seasons, using regular marijuana seeds.
One key factor for good germination is to select the right brands and strains of seeds.
When selecting seeds, do homework online and find out what marijuana strains the most successful marijuana growers are growing.
Find out which companies are creating the best seeds, and choose carefully.
A seed needs moisture and the right temperature so it can germinate.
I recommend germination temperatures between 70-80 degrees.
Temperatures in that range tend to produce a higher ratio of female marijuana plants. Temps higher than that create a higher ratio of male marijuana plants.
Many marijuana growers still use the tried and true method of germinating cannabis seeds in a wet paper towel.
With the invention of rapid rooters, you can get better germination.
They’re made from composted organic materials bonded together with plant-derived polymers.
These plugs are manufactured using a scientifically controlled process that yields large populations of beneficial microbes in the medium. We started using them to clone about three years ago and when I tried starting marijuana seeds in them, I knew I would never do it any other way.
I flip the cone-shaped rooting plugs upside down so they have more stability.
They’re made to fit into sectional trays, but that just adds cost and I try to keep things simple and low frills.
Wash your hands well with a disinfecting soap to remove any oils or contaminants before you handle marijuana seeds.
Make a small hole with a poker and place the seed point side up into the plug about ½ inch deep into the rooter.
Place the plugs into a domed container and place it under florescent lights. I like to use plastic/Tupperware shoe boxes stacked on top of each other.
They’re low cost and easy to find at any department store. Not everyone has access to a hydroponics grow shop at all times.
Don’t let the cubes dry out. That is really the only thing to worry about.
It’s best not to drown them, but as long as they don’t dry completely I have always had great success using this method.
Once the marijuana seeds sprout, I transplant them into one gallon pots filled with good quality potting soil, but make sure the soil isn’t too nutrients-rich, or it will be too nutritionally “hot” for your plants and will damage your seedlings.
via: Big Buds
A recent study by Johns Hopkins University revealed that given the right conditions, contact high’s are very real.
The study was published in the journal, Alcohol and Drug Dependance, and confirms that second hand marijuana smoke can cause even nonsmokers to become mildly inebriated. Though weakened, the effects of marijuana were shown to elicit minor problems with memory and coordination. The tests by John’s Hopkins showed that under the right conditions, second-hand smokers could even test positive for THC in a standard workplace drug test.
Don’t cancel that job interview yet though, the conditions in which this study took place were conducted in a worst-case (best-case?) scenario, like being locked in a Mini Cooper whilst smoking ten joints. The leading author in the study, Evan Herrmann, Ph.D spoke to the conditions saying, “It could happen in the real world, but it couldn’t happen to someone without him or her being aware of it.” Basically, if you have a forthcoming drug test; don’t get in that Mini Cooper.
The new research is said to be the most comprehensive study of it’s kind since the 1980’s. Similarly, those studies also concluded that THC could turn up in nonsmokers’ bodies after an hour or more spent in small spaces with large amounts of marijuana smoke. The new research is groundbreaking in that the lab also tested the cognitive effects associated with a contact high.
Now you may be thinking, “Where the hell was I when this study was being conducted?” Not so fast champ. In this small-scale study, six smokers and six non-smokers were placed in 10 by 13 foot rooms for one hour, where each smoker was given ten marijuana cigarettes to consume. Subjects were placed in one of two rooms, with the treatment group in a fan-ventilated room and the control group on a non-ventilated room; windows up! My guess is that even with an oxygen tank, one might still emerge with a serious case of the red-eye.
After being exposed to copious amounts of marijuana smoke, each subject’s blood, urine, and saliva were tested for THC. All six non-smoking subjects who sat in the non-ventilated room had detectable levels of THC in both their urine and blood. Even hours after the experiment ended, one of the nonsmoking subjects tested positive for THC at the cutoff level used in federal workplaces (50 nanograms per milliliter).
In the ventilated (control) room, none of the subjects tested positive for THC. Nor did they report feeling high. In the non-ventilated room, subjects reported pleasant and tired feelings. The author of the study reported, “The behavioral and cognitive effects were minor and consistent with a mild cannabis effect.” So that does it. Yes, you can get a contact high, albeit not all that strong.
Conversely, if you have been exposed to marijuana smoke at a concert or party, you probably shouldn’t be worried. After all, it would likely take 6 people smoking 60 joints in a small, unventilated room to warrant a cause for concern.
Cannabis has often been proposed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and rates of marijuana use are significantly higher in PTSD sufferers. However like all medical marijuana issues it's controversial and complicated. I will try and explain some of the science behind the issue.
The basic rationale is this; a defining feature of PTSD is that sufferers cannot "forget" a traumatic event such as combat or rape. It is well established that cannabis use impairs certain types of memory and may help sufferers "forget". Additionally cannabis often reduces anxiety and promotes sleep, both of which are beneficial for PTSD where elevated general anxiety and sleep disturbances are very common.
Cannabis acts upon receptors in the brain called, appropriately enough, cannabinoid receptors. The first and best described of these is called CB1, or cannabinoid receptor-1. CB1 is found throughout the brain. These receptors don't exist to get people high! What this means is that there are substances produced naturally by the brain, called endocannabinoids, that act at cannabinoid receptors.
The best described endocannabinoids are called anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). These endocannabinoids are flighty molecules, they are rapidly synthesized only when required and don't stick around for long, being swiftly broken down by an enzyme by the name of "fatty acid aminohydrolase", less tongue-twistingly known as FAAH. Endocannabinoids are involved in many biological processes including appetite regulation, pain, anxiety, mood, nausea and blood pressure. All of which are also affected by marijuana.
One of the most interesting things these endocannabinoids appear to do, according to research in rats and mice, is stimulate the ability to forget about bad things. The basic research paradigm used is called "fear conditioning" and works on the same principle as Pavlov's dogs; rodents are played a sound, usually a beep, just before a very slight electric shock. This shock, much like a threat in the wild, causes the animals to freeze in their tracks. Although the shock is mild and brief, the animals obviously don't like it and learn very quickly that the beep means a shock is coming. After a short time, just the beep (without the shock) causes the animals to freeze and, crucially, causes the production of endocannabinoids in the brain (link is external). The relevance of this model to the human condition is obvious. PTSD symptoms are often triggered by exposure to something in the environment that reminds the sufferer of trauma.
After a while, rodents, like most people, will learn that the beep no longer means that a shock is coming and will no longer freeze when the beep is played. If animals are treated with a drug that blocks CB1 receptors then they show a profound inability to forget. The same result is found in mice genetically engineered to not have CB1, playing the beep causes them to freeze long after normal animals have learned to forget. Again, the relevance to PTSD is obvious; only some people who experience an extreme trauma will develop PTSD. Could genetic differences in their endocannabinoid system help explain why this is?
Perhaps most interestingly, animals given an extra booster of endocannabinoids find it easier to forget. Drugs which inhibit the breakdown of endocannabinoids by blocking FAAH have the same effect (link is external), suggesting that medications which stimulate the endocannabinoid system may be beneficial in the treatment of PTSD.
Read More: Psychology Today
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