The Difference Between Indica and Sativa


You have probably already heard of sativa and indica, and even the hybrid strains, but do you know what the differences between them are? They are three distinct categories of specific traits that even the most experienced growers don’t know about.

Sativa and Indica have been on the books since the 1700s, but the hybrid didn’t come until some time later. Sativas come from a temperate climate near the equator, while the Indica likely originated around present-day Afghanistan, specifically near the Hindu Kush area. The climate and weather conditions there are harsh — this is likely why they have a thicker protective coat of resin than the Sativa strains.
Nowadays, less is thought about the origins of the Indica and Sativa, and rather what those strains are well known for. This is why many marijuana growers prefer to grow one or the other.

There is actually no official scientific evidence that explains the differences between Indica and Sativa strains of marijuana or even confirms that these differences exist. Nonetheless, they are widely accepted facts among the marijuana growing and using crowd.

There are some historical explanations for the beginnings of the Indica strain, also known as Cannabis Indica. It was first classified by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist, in the late 1700s. He also identified the fact that the plants were intoxicating. It was different from the regular hemp crops grown in Europe at the time, as they did not intoxicate the consumer.

Because of the differences between the European hemp crops (then actually known as Cannabis Sativa), Lamarck named his Indian discovery Cannabis Indica to establish its uniqueness from the European hemp. It was considered a therapeutic remedy of sorts in Europe during the 1800s and commonly used in Western medicine.

Indica plants look short and bushy and have wide leaves and dense branches, making it the best strain for indoor grow rooms. They are known for their healing effects in regards to anxiety, insomnia, pain, relaxation of muscles, headache, and migraine relief, and muscle spasms. The high that comes from smoking Indica weed includes a sedating effect, making the smoker feel relaxed in their entire body. ‘Couch lock’ is the commonly used expression for this sort of high.

Indicas are considered the ‘nighttime’ type of marijuana. There is also a difference in scent between strains. Indica marijuana tends to have a scent that is strongly sweet or sour.

Sativas are tall and thinner with looser branches and long, narrow leaves, making them suitable outdoor plants. They are big. Some can grow as high as 25 feet tall — or more! They work well to combat the symptoms of depression, ADD, fatigue, and mood disorders. The high achieved with smoking Sativas is more uplifting, energizing, and often creative, as it focuses mostly on the cerebral region of the brain.

Sativas are considered the ‘daytime’ type of marijuana. They are well known for being an artist’s favorite type of marijuana to smoke, as it helps the free flowing of ideas for paintings and other type arts. In general, Sativa gives the user an overall feeling of contentedness, well-being, and ease, not to mention the fact that it helps spark and maintain focus.

The differences in the effects of Indica and Sativa strains come from varying levels of THC and CBD. Sativas naturally produce high levels of THC, while Indicas instead produce high levels of CBD. The ratios of THC and CBD are what make the differences come out, but this can vary even within the strains. Sometimes you will find a Sativa high in THC or an Indica high in CBD, due to all the cross-hybridization that has gone on over the generations; therefore, the expected effects do not always appear.

Thank You: I Love Growing Marijuana


MMJ EDIBLE RECIPE Southern Biscuits and Sausage Gravy


These satisfying cannabis-infused biscuits and gravy are a great way to medicate in the morning. These step-by-step directions will help you make the most delicious Southern Style Biscuits and Sausage Gravy.

*This recipe is designed for high tolerance users. Lower tolerance users who make this recipe should substitute regular butter for cannabis-butter in the biscuits recipe.

Strains suggested for use in cannabis-butter & marijuana milk recipes:

Afghan Kush • Ghost Train Haze • Agent Orange • XJ 13

Ingredients

 


Buttermilk Biscuits


  • 2 1/2 cups self-rising flour (OR 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour, 3 1/4 teaspoons baking powder, and 3/8 teaspoon salt if you do not have self-rising flour)
  • 2 teaspoons sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 4 tablespoons vegetable shortening
  • 4 tablespoons cannabis-butter (chilled)
  • 1 cup chilled buttermilk

Sausage Gravy


  • 1lb sage pork sausage
  • 1/4 cup finely chopped yellow onion
  • 1/3 cup flour
  • 2 cups whole milk
  • 2 cups whole-marijuana-milk
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 2 teaspoons black pepper plus more to taste
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning
  • 2 dashes Worcestershire sauce
  • a pinch of cayenne pepper

Directions


  1. Preheat the oven to 450°F.
  2. Prepare a floured work surface for shaping the dough and an ungreased baking sheet.
  3. Whisk together the flour, sugar, and salt in a medium bowl. Use a fork or pastry blender to cut in the shortening and cannabis-butter. Work quickly to turn the mixture into a coarse, crumbly meal. Don’t handle directly with your hands to avoid warming the butter and shortening.
  4. Make a well in the flour mixture and pour in the buttermilk. Stir with a spoon until the liquid is absorbed and the dough starts to pull away from the sides, adding an additional tablespoon or two of buttermilk if the dough is too dry. You want the dough to be nice an tacky.
  5. Use floured hands to turn the dough onto the floured work surface and fold it over on itself 2 or 3 times. Shape into a 3/4″ round. Use a 2″ biscuit butter and cut out the biscuits, pressing straight down (not twisting).
  6. Place the biscuits on the baking sheet so they just barely touch. Reshape the dough scraps and continue cutting until there is no more dough left. Set aside.
  7. Place a saucepan on the stove over medium-high heat.
  8. Once the pan is hot, crumble the sausage unto the pan and let it brown for a minute or two then turn down the heat to medium. Break the sausage into smaller pieces while it cooks until there is no more pink. Stir in the onions and cook until they are transparent.
  9. Add the biscuits to the oven and bake for 15-18 minutes. They are done when edges are golden brown.
  10. Sprinkle half the flour over the sausage, and stir until it is all soaked up. Add a little more just before the sausage starts to look too dry.
  11. Stir it around and cook for another minute or so, then pour all 4 cups of milk (2 cups whole milk & 2 cups whole-marijuana-milk), stirring constantly.
  12. Cook the gravy, stirring constantly until the gravy thickens. Sprinkle in the spices (salt, pepper, nutmeg, poultry seasoning, Worcestershire sauce, and cayenne pepper) and continue cooking until the gravy is thick and velvetty. If it gets too thick, splash in 1/2 cup of milk. Taste and adjust the seasonings.
Serves: 10-12

Once the gravy is finished and the biscuits are cooked, top the biscuits with the gravy. Serve immediately.

 Thank You: MassRoots

Medical Marijuana vs Back Pain


Back pain is a medical condition that usually cannot be ignored due to its interference with overall sense of well-being and it is one of the most common reasons people visit a doctor. Although it is possible for the pain to go away from lying down and relaxing, many times the remedy isn't that simple. When it comes to medical cannabis, back pain is a condition that has been treated with success for some patients. The following reasons summarize why medical cannabis can help people with back pain. 

1. The Body Naturally Makes Cannabis-like Chemicals


The human body has its own natural painkilling system in which it manufactures chemicals like marijuana that treat pain, according to a WebMD article reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH. Marijuana can help those natural chemicals perform better for some people, according to University of Colorado PharmD Laura Borgelt. Medical marijuana has been prescribed by doctors in states where it is legal to use as treatment for chronic pain, particularly nerve pain and muscle spasms. 


A 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) presented evidence that spinal cord injury and other forms of acute pain could be treated with cannabinoids, which are found in marijuana. The report mentioned that the nervous system includes cannabinoid receptors that detect and control the perception of pain. 


The report characterized marijuana as a promising pain relief medication of the future. As the medical community becomes more willing to research medical cannabis, back pain problems will likely be resolved on a wider scale without the use of drugs such as codeine. The report found that codeine required six times an amount than THC, the active ingredient of cannabis, to achieve the same pain relief effects. The report noted that THC patients reported less anxiety than codeine patients did.

2. Conventional Treatments are More Dangerous and Expensive


It's a good idea to avoid heavier drugs that can have more harmful side effects. In fact, recent studies show that states which have legalized medical marijuana have had decreased pharmaceutical painkiller deaths. Aside from fatal overdoses, side effects from pharmaceutical painkillers can include nausea, gastric bleeding, ulcers and stomach problems. Even though these drugs can provide pain relief, the side effects present too much risk, whereas marijuana does not have many side effects. Another difference with cannabis is that it is not physically addictive, whereas many conventional drugs can be. 


Conventional drugs can also be much more expensive than cannabis. Insurance doesn't always cover all costs and in the United States pharmaceutical drugs cost astronomically higher than in other countries. The downside of capitalism is that corporations are allowed to set high prices, even for health care products. Cannabis, on the other hand, is relatively inexpensive, partly because it typically is not manufactured in a lab with synthetic patented chemicals and it doesn't involve the research and marketing costs that drive up pharma drug prices. These reasons have played a major role in patients of many disorders shifting to medical marijuana, especially for chronic back pain. 


3. Medical Cannabis, Back Pain and Associated Problems


Medical cannabis not only reduces or even eliminates back pain; it can also reduce or eliminate other discomfort that arises from back pain. These associated problems include anxiety, depression and insomnia, which can all be relieved by marijuana for certain individuals. Many states have named these specific conditions as grounds for doctors to approve medical cannabis for treatment. By eliminating these various health issues, you can improve your quality of life and get on with your life. Other associated benefits of marijuana include mood elevation and improved sleep.


via: the Medical Marijuana Association

4 Good Reasons Marijuana is Better than Alcohol


Here are just a few of the many ways marijuana outperforms alcohol:

Marijuana is a brain-booster

 
A common stereotype paints medicinal marijuana users as slow-thinking and lazy. However, research has shown that the cannabinoids in marijuana actually help stimulate brain activity. In addition, THC -- the ingredient in marijuana responsible for getting you high -- can actually prevent buildup of amyloid-beta peptides, one of the biggest causes of Alzheimer's disease, in the brain. In fact, the Scripps Research Institute study suggests that THC might even do this better than most legal prescription drugs. Meanwhile, alcohol is a depressant -- meaning it slows down brain activity and even contributes to a worsening in mood.

Medicinal marijuana use has been proven to treat certain health conditions

 
There are a wide number of different ailments that medical marijuana can help treat. From epilepsy to chemotherapy side effects to depression and anxiety, a growing number of people are using medical marijuana as a safe, effective way to treat their health problems. Alcohol, however, lacks these medicinal properties -- and could even make your health worse. Habitual drinking is associated with increased risk of cancer, worsening of epilepsy, cardiovascular disease and much more.

Marijuana is virtually non-addictive

 
The chances of someone becoming addicted to marijuana are lower than any other drug or substance. Only about 9% of people who use marijuana regularly will develop a dependence. Alcoholism occurs at about the same rate. Substances like tobacco result in addiction among about 30% of users, in contrast.


There have been zero deaths on record from marijuana overdose
 
Because it is nearly impossible to overdose on marijuana -- medical or otherwise -- there are no recorded deaths directly resulting from marijuana consumption. Meanwhile, alcohol results in the deaths of as many as 2.5 million people around the world annually, whether it's from alcohol poisoning or from drunk driving.


Thank You: The Medicinal Marijuana Association 

MMJ Patients are Reducing their Consumption of Pharmaceuticals


Patients with legal access to medical marijuana reduce their consumption of conventional pharmaceuticals, according to a demographic review of patient characteristics published online in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

Investigators affiliated with the Medical Marijuana Research Institute in Mesa surveyed responses from 367 state-qualified patients recruited from four Arizona medical cannabis dispensaries. Respondents were more likely to be male, in their mid-40s, and daily consumers of cannabis.

Respondents most often reported using cannabis therapeutically to treat symptoms of chronic pain, muscle spasms, nausea, anxiety, arthritis, depression, headaches, insomnia, and stress. Patients typically said that cannabis provided “a lot of relief” or “almost complete relief” of their symptoms and that its efficacy was greater than that of more conventional medications.

Patients also reported reducing their use of pharmaceuticals. Over 70 percent of respondents reported using other medications “a little less frequently” or “much less frequently” for 24 of the 42 conditions specified. Over 90 percent of those who reported consuming cannabis to mitigate symptoms of nausea, headache, muscle spasms, fibromyalgia, bowel distress, and chronic pain acknowledged using pharmaceuticals less frequently once they had initiated cannabis therapy.

Previously published survey data of medical cannabis patients similarly report subjects’ willingness to substitute cannabis for prescription drugs, particularly opioids.

A study published in July by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a non-partisan think-tank, reported, “States permitting medical marijuana dispensaries experience a relative decrease in both opioid addictions and opioid overdose deaths compared to states that do not.” Data published in 2014 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine similarly reported, “States with medical cannabis laws had a 24.8 percent lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared with states without medical cannabis laws.”

via: The Daily Chronic

It is Impossible to Lethaly Overdose on Marijuana


In early 2014, the BBC reported that a 31-year-old woman, Gemma Moss, “died as a result of cannabis poisoning.” The real shocker, however, isn’t Moss’ death, but rather the fact that she had smoked only half a joint.

One of the most ambiguous, yet frequently lobbed criticisms of cannabis is the fact that it is “dangerous.” Despite this fear mongering, until more robust research is conducted, the long-term effects of cannabis on the human brain and nervous system will remain in debate.

A 2009 study from American Scientist regarding the toxicity of recreational drugs provides some interesting numbers. The study revealed that using only 10 times the “effective” dose of alcohol can be fatal. However, in the case of cannabis, 1,000 times the effective dose is necessary to achieve a fatal dose (a ratio 100 times greater than that of alcohol).

One of the most common methods by which the “danger” inherent in a particular drug is objectively measured within the medical community is the rate at which it kills those who consume it. This is measured by something called the LD-50 rating, which indicates the dosage necessary to kill 50 percent of test animals “as a result of drug induced toxicity.”

n a 1988 ruling, DEA Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young detailed the amount of cannabis necessary to achieve a level of toxicity that might cause death in humans:
“At present it is estimated that marijuana’s LD-50 is around 1:20,000 or 1:40,000. In layman terms this means that in order to induce death a marijuana smoker would have to consume 20,000 to 40,000 times as much marijuana as is contained in one marijuana cigarette. A smoker would theoretically have to consume nearly 1,500 pounds of marijuana within about 15 minutes to induce a lethal response.”
Not convinced? According to the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health,

“Because cannabinoid receptors, unlike opioid receptors, are not located in the brainstem areas controlling respiration, lethal overdoses from cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur.”
More recent research has indicated additional reasons why humans don’t die from marijuana poisoning. In 2014, the journal Science published the results of French researchers who have discovered the presence of a natural hormone that reverses marijuana intoxication — in rats, at least. According to the researchers, “When the [rat] brain is stimulated by high doses of THC, it produces pregnenolone — a 3,000 percent increase — that inhibits the effects of THC.”

It’s sad when an otherwise reputable media outlet like the BBC succumbs to the ignorance of decades of global cannabis prohibition. Regardless of a reader’s stance on medical or recreational marijuana, a firm grasp of the facts is necessary to overcome an abundance of misinformation — sometimes even from mainstream media.

In the words of the DEA’s own Judge Young: “Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man.”

Thank You: MassRoots

The Wonderful Women of Weed Volume XVII











The Women of Weed Volume IX
The Women of Weed Volume X 
The Women of Weed Volume XI
The Women of Weed Volume XII
The Women of Weed Volume XIII
The Women of Weed Volume XIV 
The Women of Weed Volume XV
The Women of Weed Volume XVI 
The Women of Weed Volume XVII
 

MMJ Medical Marijuana vs Sleep Apnea


Sleep apnea is a surprisingly common sleep disorder that is characterized by abnormal declines or pauses in breathing during sleep. Each pause is called an ‘apnea’ or ‘hypopnea’ and can last from a few seconds to minutes in length – occurring 5 to 30 times or more per hour. Sleep apnea falls under the broader category of sleep-disordered breathing and is classified as mild, moderate or severe depending on the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes that occur per hour of sleep.

A number of studies have investigated the effects of cannabis extracts on sleep apnea, revealing positive findings.

In 2002, researchers at the University of Illinois published the results of a study documenting the effects of cannabinoids (THC and oleamide) in animal models of sleep apnea. The results showed that both THC and oleamide were able to stabilize respiration in the animal models during all stages of sleep, decreasing apnea indexes during NREM and REM sleep stages by 42% and 58% respectively. These decreases were observed to be dose-dependent – meaning that higher doses of cannabinoids resulted in higher reductions in apnea episodes.

Following the positive results of this pre-clinical trial, lead author Dr. David Carley published the first human trial to investigate the effects of THC (dronabinol) on sleep apnea in 2013. The study involved administering varying doses of dronabinol (2.5, 5 and 10mg) to 17 test subjects prior to bedtime over a 3 week period. The results showed an overall reduction in apnea indexes of 32%, despite significant variance between patients.

Although a 32% reduction is marginal when compared to the effectiveness of current treatment options (such as CPAP and oral devices), the authors suggest that cannabinoid medications could still be of benefit to patients who suffer from mild to moderate cases of sleep apnea. Furthermore, the reduction was observed to be dose-dependent in both pre-clinical and human trials – meaning that higher rates of reduction may likely be achieved with higher doses of cannabinoids.

Read More: Truth on Pot

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