Terpenes and Terpenoids Explained


Ever wondered what gives your Blue Dream strain that fresh blueberry flavor & scent?

The answer is terpenes. Terpenes (TUR-peen) are a large class of organic hydrocarbons produced by a wide variety of plants, and are referred to as terpenoids when denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers). They are the main building block of any plant resin or “essential oils” and contribute to the scent, flavor, and colors. Some are even known to have medicinal value.

Terpenes are the main class of aromatic compounds found in cannabis and have even been proven to interact synergistically with cannabinoids to provide for a range of different effects. While many people believe that it is the sticky glands of THC (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) that provide cannabis with its peculiar aroma, it is in fact the more unstable monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes that are responsible. In fact, it is the smell of the specific sesquiterpene, Caryophyllene oxide that drug dogs are able to detect when probing for cannabis.

Understanding the importance of terpenes allows for a true “cannasseur” to broaden their approach to searching for new strains based on smells and tastes, rather than purely effects.

In addition to cannabinoids, many terpenes are known to have their own pharmacological value as well. For example, alpha-pinene is an organic compound found in the oils of rosemary and sage as well as many species of pine trees. Pinene can increase mental focus and energy, as well as act as an expectorant, bronchodilator, and a topical antiseptic and has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to retain and restore memory. It was ALSO found at the highest level in the Green House Seed Company strain, Super Silver Haze.

Other terpenes such as limonene have relaxing effects and are found in anything with a citrus smell such as oranges, lemons, rosemary, and juniper. Limonene is known to have anti-bacterial, anti-depressant and anti-carcinogenic properties as well. It is thought to quickly penetrate cell membranes causing other terpenes to be absorbed more rapidly and effectively. Because of Limonene’s potent anti-carcinogenic and anti-fungal properties, it is thought to be the component protecting marijuana smokers from aspergillus fungi and carcinogens found in cannabis smoke.

Cannabis is also known for possessing a significant amount of the terpene beta-caryophyllene (BCP). According to Berkely Patients Care, this terpene is responsible for activating the CB2 receptor and acts as a non-psychoactive anti-inflammatory. Because it binds to a cannabinoid receptor, beta-caryophyllene is considered a cannabinoid. The terpene is in many legal herbs and spices and contributes to the spiciness of black pepper. It is also an FDA approved food additive, making it the first dietary cannabinoid.

Myrcene is another abundant terpene in cannabis, mainly sativas, and is a building block for menthol, citronella and geraniol. The terpene possesses muscle-relaxing, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects among other benefits. Myrcene also has an effect on the permeability of cell membranes, which allows for the absorption of more cannabinoids by brain cells.

Myrcene is also a very important chemical in the perfumery industry because of its peasant odor, which is described as clove-like, earthy, and fruity. It can be found in the essential oils of the bay tree, myrcia (where the name comes from), and mangos.

Much Much More at: Medical Jane

The United States Government Owns a Patent on Medicinal Marijuana


Patent No. 6630507, held by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, covers the use of cannabinoids for treating a wide range of diseases.

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Under U.S. federal law, marijuana is defined as having no medical use. So it might come as a surprise to hear that the government owns one of the only patents on marijuana as a medicine. 

The patent (US6630507) is titled “Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants” and was awarded to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in October 2003. 

It was filed four years earlier, in 1999, by a group of scientists from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 

he patent claims exclusive rights on the use of cannabinoids for treating neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and stroke, and diseases caused by oxidative stress, such as heart attack, Crohn’s disease, diabetes and arthritis. 

Cannabinoids are a diverse class of compounds that include many of the unique compounds found in marijuana. A number of experts, including CNN’s chief medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta, have noted the contradiction between federal marijuana law and the government’s patent.

“The United States government owns a patent on marijuana as a medical application… So we have a patent through our Department of HHS on marijuana as a therapeutic and we also schedule it as a Schedule I.”
It is easy to think of the patent as a patent on marijuana itself. However, this would be inaccurate, since the patent actually covers non-psychoactive cannabinoids (both synthetic and natural), meaning those that don’t cause a high. 

The patent also covers only a specific application of these cannabinoids and not the production or use of marijuana and cannabinoids overall.

Read More: Leaf Science

The Medicinal Benefits of THC


THC (tetrohydrocannabinol) is the most recognized ingredient in cannabis. It is best known for causing the high that you get from using marijuana.

As a result, THC has also caused the most controversy surrounding the plant’s medical use, with many health professionals citing the high as a drawback. 

However, while compounds like CBD have started to gain favor due to their lack of psychoactivity, decades of research have revealed a number of medical benefits unique to THC. Below is a list of just 7 of them.

Pain Relief

One of the most common uses of medical marijuana is for pain relief. And as it turns out, THC is the ingredient in marijuana responsible for its pain-relieving effects. 

Studies show that THC activates pathways in the central nervous system which work to block pain signals from being sent to the brain. Likewise, cannabis has been shown to be especially effective against neuropathic pain, or nerve-related pain.

PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is another common reason to use medical marijuana. Interestingly, the high from THC is also associated with temporary impairments of memory. 

While this may be seen as a drawback for some marijuana users, impaired memory is often therapeutic for those who struggle to forget painful memories, such as patients who suffer from PTSD. Recent studies confirm that oral doses of THC can help relieve a variety of PTSD-related symptoms including flashbacks, agitation and nightmares. 

Nausea and Vomiting

THC has been available in pill form for treating nausea and vomiting in cancer patients since the 1980s. 

Marinol, a pill containing synthetic THC, was the first THC-based medication to be approved by the FDA for this purpose. Since then, other THC pills have been developed and prescribed to patients undergoing chemotherapy, including a pill called Cesamet. 

Appetite Stimulant

Along with its ability to reduce nausea, THC is known to work as a powerful appetite stimulant in both healthy and sick individuals. Similarly, Marinol and Cesamet are regularly prescribed to boost appetite in patients with cancer and HIV-associated wasting syndrome. 

A number of studies conducted with Marinol suggest that THC can also stimulate weight gain in anorexia. 

More: Leaf Science

STRAIN REVIEW Mr Nice Guy

 

My first impression as I removed the bud of Mr. Nice Guy from the vial was,"Damn, THAT'S frosty!"

Beneath the thick coating of trichomes, I saw an explosion of color: lime green buds with bluish purple calixes and flame red hairs! It's smell is both floral and herbal, like lavender and camomile.

This bud was well cured and manicured. After I had slowly peeled apart a piece from the main nug, it's stickiness really impressed me- as I broke it up in my bowl, the bud had a velcro-like quality!

The smoke is earthy, with floral overtones that make it very mild and savory. With the first hit comes an almost immediate, warm, smiling rush. It's definitely not a "couch-lock" strain- it's effects are almost energizing!

Locally this is a $20/gm or $50/8th product, and in my opinion is a great choice for a Sativa-dominant hybrid!

Mikey Pman

If you would like your 420 related product reviewed, 
contact Mikey Pman at stinkyville@gmail.com

Five Good Healthy Reasons to Juice Your MMJ


Besides fruits and vegetables, it turns out cannabis can be added to your juicer as well.

 

For those unfamiliar with the juicing phenomenon, the process of making cannabis juice is surprisingly simple. All you really need is a blender/juicer and some raw material. 

But what are the advantages of juicing raw cannabis? Here’s a list of our top 5.

 1. Avoid the High

While the downsides of getting high are often debated, the fact is that some people prefer their cannabis without psychoactive effects. This is where juicing comes in handy. 

Since heat is required to convert the THCA in raw cannabis into THC, its psychoactive form, juicing provides a way of obtaining many of the benefits of cannabis without getting high.

 2. Ingest Higher Doses

Along the same line, not getting high makes it easier to take higher doses of cannabis and therefore more of its medical components, also known as cannabinoids. 

One doctor who recommends juicing is Dr. William Courtney, founder of the Cannabis International Foundation. According to Dr. Courtney, THC can be taken in doses of hundreds of milligrams when in its acid form. However, once heated, the tolerable dose drops to 10 mg a day.

Cannabis juice also contains CBDA, the acid form of CBD.

 3. Versatility

Cannabis juice can be mixed with a variety of other healthy ingredients to create delicious drinks perfect for any time of the day. 

It’s also easier to drink cannabis juice while at work, in the car and in other places where smoking or vaporizing might be inconvenient.

 4. Avoid Smoking

Juicing, like vaporizing, allows you to avoid the negative effects of smoking. 

Although cannabis smoke has not been linked to lung cancer, it can irritate the airways and lead to minor respiratory symptoms such as chronic bronchitis. Thus, juicing may even help you breathe a bit easier.

 5. Prevent Disease

While cannabis is often seen as a treatment for chronic diseases, incorporating cannabis into your diet can be a great way to maintain health and prevent disease. 

Cannabinoids have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, making them a powerful dietary supplement. 

Hat Tip to: Leaf Science

Check Out HEMP BOUND by Doug Fine


The billion-dollar plant that’s going to change our diet and farms, help restore our soil, and wean us from petroleum.

Turns out your roommate with the lava lamp was right. Get ready for the game changing plant that’s going to feed the world and free us from fossil fuels while putting small farmers back to work. 

Yes, a writer of Doug Fine’s renown realized going in that the stat sheet on hemp sounded almost too good: its fibers are among the planet’s strongest, its seed oil the most nutritious, and its potential as an energy source vast and untapped? But he’s just researched it from the field, and guess what? It’s all true. In fact he’s uncovered new locavore energy application models that could and should change the energy economy (and improve the atmosphere) forever.

Hemp’s one downside? For nearly a century, it’s been effectively illegal to grow industrial cannabis in the United States—even though Betsy Ross wove the nation’s first flag out of hemp fabric, Thomas Jefferson composed the Declaration of Independence on it, and colonists could pay their taxes with it. But as the prohibition on hemp’s psychoactive cousin winds down, one of humanity’s longest-utilized plants is about to be reincorporated into the American economy. Get ready for the newest billion-dollar industry.
More At: DougFine.com

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