MMJ GROWER: What is the deal with Feminized Seeds



Cannabis is relatively unusual in the world of flowering plants, in that it has separate male and female plants. For purposes of growing high-potency herbal cannabis, the male is unnecessary and is in fact a hindrance. Breeders have therefore poured time and resources into developing seeds that will produce only female plants on germination.

When male pollen comes into contact with the female stigmas, fertilization occurs and the calyxes begin to form seeds. If male pollen can be excluded from the grow room entirely, the calyxes will fill with sticky, cannabinoid-rich resin instead. It is thought that this overproduction of resin may be a last-ditch attempt to attract pollinating insects, although cannabis is generally a wind-pollinated plant.


Dioecious & Monoecious cannabis

Cannabis is dioecious, meaning that it has two sexes, male and female. Most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, meaning that male and female flower structures are combined into “perfect” flowers. Others are monoecious, meaning that they have separate male and female flowers on the same plant. Cannabis is usually dioecious and sometimes monoecious, but true hermaphrodite flowers are extremely rare to non-existent (the few documented examples are disputed).

Occasionally, isolated populations of cannabis will become monoecious in response to environmental pressures. These monoecious plants have the ability to self-fertilize in the absence of fully male plants, to produce offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.


Feminization techniques

When breeders observed this tendency in wild plants, they realized that if the technique could be applied to indoor varieties, resulting in feminized seeds. One way to achieve this result involves crossing monoecious plants with dioecious to achieve increasingly monoecious results, while still retaining the desirable qualities of the dioecious parent.

However, this method can be unpredictable and take generations to produce useful results. Another technique is light-poisoning, which involves disrupting the daylight hours with random hours of darkness. After a few weeks of such stress, the female plant will begin to produce male flowers.


Gibberellic Acid

Another method involves treating a dioecious female with a substance that induces production of male flowers. Gibberellic acid is the most widely-used chemical, but other options include silver sulfate and 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid. The chosen chemical is sprayed on a healthy female two weeks prior to flowering, and as the male flowers emerge they pollinate any female flower in the vicinity, ultimately producing all-female flowers.

By: Dope Smoker UK




MMJ GROWER TIP: Properly Identifying Male and Female Plants

FEMALE CANNABIS PLANT

If you prefer to use regular seeds rather than feminized, it is important to separate the males from the females, unless you plan to allow pollination to occur so that new seeds can be formed. In the early stages of vegetative growth, it can be very difficult to distinguish between the two sexes, but after a few weeks tell-tale signs may begin to emerge.

Once the young plant has put out three or four sets of leaves, the nodes that join the leaf to the stem often display early signs of gender. Female “pre-flowers” often exhibit two wispy green shoots, that in time will develop into the first calyxes. Male pre-flowers do not put out these wispy shoots, and instead they first appear as two smooth green bumps between the leafs’ stems and the stalk.

Male cannabis plants generally mature significantly earlier than females, and so the first signs of pre-flowering also occur earlier. This means that an observant grower should be able to spot the males and separate them out before they have the chance to mature and pollinate the females. However, it is important to remember that even apparently female plants may exhibit hermaphrodite tendencies, so growers should remain vigilant through the flowering period.

 MALE CANNABIS PLANT

Thank You: Dope Smoker



Ten Reasons Why Marijuana is Better for you than Alcohol


The National Institute of Drug Abuse released a statement denying that pot is less toxic than alcohol, which resulted in cries of dismay from those at the HT offices and pot smokers nationwide. We decided to come up with a list of just some of the reasons weed wins over booze:
 
1. Marijuana Curbs Brain Damage Caused by Drinking
Unless you’re seriously in denial about alcohol’s negative effects, you’re probably aware that alcohol is less than good for your brain. Marijuana, however, may actually help prevent alcohol-associated brain damage and treat depression.


2. Marijuana May Help Treat Cancers Caused by Alcohol
Alcohol consumption is carcinogenic, and contributes to head and neck, breast, liver, esophageal and colorectal cancers. In fact, more than 19,500 cancer deaths in 2009 were deemed alcohol-related. Cannabis has been proven to help treat cancer and its symptoms.


3. Violent Behavior vs. Utter Chillness
Whether it’s used as an excuse for or directly causes aggression, alcohol more than any other substance promotes violent behavior. In case you’re unaware, marijuana tends to chill people out.


4. Alcohol Addiction is Extremely Dangerous
Alcoholism is an international problem, and withdrawal can lead to death or permanent brain damage. Cannabis addiction exists, but it is less harmful and generally less severe than addiction to other substances.


5. One Kills People. Guess Which One.
The first four points highlight alcohol’s lethality, but they don’t tell the whole story. Alcohol abuse kills 2.5 million people worldwide each year. The green stuff has led to exactly zero recorded deaths. Ever.


6. Alcohol Prevents Muscle Growth
Alcohol can prevent muscle growth in a variety of ways, from decreasing testosterone levels to interrupting sleep. Weed doesn’t directly affect muscle growth at all.


7. One Has Legitimate Medicinal Uses
Marijuana has a long, long list of physician-approved medical uses and the list is growing. Other than red wine’s ability to lower blood pressure, alcohol does just about nothing positive for a person’s health.


8. Drunk Sex is Sloppy, High Sex is Tingly
Alcohol decreases your ability to perceive stimuli. That can be a good thing when you’ve just faceplanted at a party and want to play it off like nothing. Losing feeling when you’re getting intimate, however, is pretty lame. Enter marijuana, which, as our very own Hypatia Lee can attest increases sensitivity and can improve sex.


9. Long Term Alcohol Abuse Could Kill You
Long-term alcohol abuse can lead to liver failure or other life-threatening conditions. Marijuana’s effects over a lifetime are still not entirely understood, but they do not include any of the potentially lethal ailments caused by alcohol.


10. Drunks Decisions Bad, High Decisions Slow
Alcohol leads to risky decision-making, period. That can be fun sometimes but dangerous at others. Scientist’s have yet to fully grasp marijuana’s effects on decision making, but this study shows that smokers more or less come to the same conclusions as sober peeps. They just take a little bit longer to arrive at those conclusions.


Thank You: High Times


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